Description of all tests Utilitia Service

Please find below the description of all tests currently available in Utilitia service. A technical description is shown for each item, with information on who can be affected by the irregularities found.

Unless otherwise stated, Utilitia is the creator of all available validators. Our programmers constantly elaborate new tests, which we will be able to attach to Utilitia service, in this way improving its functionality all the time.

All Utilitia tests

1.    HTML validation
WCAG level A
W3C Consortium is the validator’s author. The validator enables the testing of web pages in terms of conformity to HTML, XHTML and HTML 5 language standards.

The conformity to these standards materially facilitates the interpretation of the code and the proper display of websites by Internet browsers. It also means easier maintenance and modernisation of Internet sites.

Non-conformity affects all disabled people using supportive technologies, e.g. screen reading programmes, screen magnifying applications or devices replacing a keyboard or a traditional computer mouse. Errors in web page code will also be noticed by users of less popular technologies, e.g. WebTV or older Internet browsers. Conformity of a website to standards also increases its readability for Web bots indexing content for Internet search engines.

2.    Validation of the uniqueness of HTML identifiers
WCAG level A
The test checks if HTML identifiers used in a given website are different; if repeating identifiers are found, an error is returned.

Improper usage of identifiers affects mainly people with eyesight dysfunction, using screen reading programmes and speech synthesizers. They apply unique identifiers for easier and quicker content finding. The identifiers are used in all supporting technologies. Additionally, errors made when assigning the identifiers substantially hamper the work of programmers expanding a given website.

3.    Validation of head correctness
WCAG level A and AAA
The test checks if head tags H1 to H6 are used correctly, i.e. whether H1 head is used only once, whether head tags are not empty and whether they have proper nesting sequence (e.g. whether H1 head does not occur immediately after H3 head).

The uniqueness and correct structure of head tags facilitates orientation on web pages and in HTML documents for people with sight dysfunction, making it possible for them to locate certain content easily. Moreover, the correct structure of HTML documents enables Web bots to aggregate content and to present it in an alternative way.

4.    Presence of form tags
WCAG level A and AA
The test checks if forms placed on web pages have tags.

The lack of tags assigned to form control elements can make it impossible for blind and visually impaired people to fill in the form.

5.    Order of form fields
WCAG level A
The test analyses if access order to form fields was declared with the use of “tabindex” parameter.

Thanks to the correct declaration of access order, users navigating on web pages with keyboards have an opportunity to fill out the form correctly in a situation when visual order is not identical to logical order.

Wrong declaration of form fields sequence affects all people using a keyboard as a navigation tool on websites, e.g. physically disabled people, people with manual limitations and people with eyesight dysfunction.

6.    Accessibility without JavaScript
WCAG level A
The test analyses to what extent a given web page differs when JavaScript language support is switched on and off. As far as it is possible, Internet sites should be designed in such a way as to make their functionality identical, no matter if JavaScript language support is active in a browser or not.

Excess of JavaScript is problematic for users of older browsers, disabled people with eyesight dysfunction employing screen reading programmes, or for mobile users.

For security policy reasons, in some companies JavaScript support is blocked automatically and their employees have hampered access to web pages with content placed using this language.

7.    Uniqueness of metadata
WCAG level A
The test controls if web pages have unique names in the meta section. Because of its character, this test works only with the analysis of the entire website.

The uniqueness of titles facilitates the orientation and identification of Internet sites. The titles are placed on the top bar of the browser window, in this way enabling the quick identification of the current location of the user in the website.

The lack of correct marking of the web page title affects people with eyesight dysfunction, mentally disabled, senior citizens and people having problems with concentration or memory. The title of an Internet site is the first element displayed by Web search engines. It is the default name of the file created while saving the site.

8.    Presence of navigation in the same place
WCAG level AA
The test finds the navigation block within the website and then checks if it is present in the same place on all analysed subpages. Because of its character, this test works only with the analysis of the entire website.

The correct and stable structure of the website allows for efficient navigation through content contained within a web page. Otherwise, all users are affected, but particularly people with eyesight dysfunction, physically disabled, mentally disabled, senior citizens and people having problems acquiring knowledge.

9.    Accessibility of links
WCAG level A, AA and AAA
The test checks if links on a given page are unambiguous, i.e. if the link with a given description leads only to one location within the particular website.

The presence of many links of the same name in one web page is confusing, especially for visually impaired people who are able to see only a small portion of the screen using magnification software.

10. Accessibility of PDF files
WCAG level A
The test controls if PDF files placed within the website have their titles defined and if they have a text layer apart from the graphics layer.

The lack of a text layer in PDF documents affects all users. They cannot search through such documents automatically and they cannot copy fragments. Disabled people using screen reading programmes cannot get acquainted with the content of such PDF files at all.

11. CSS Validation
WCAG level A
W3C Consortium is the author of the validator. It enables the control of conformity of CSS to world W3C standards.

The correct structure of Cascaded Style Sheets enables the correct display of information within the entire website, which is significant for all Internet users.

12. Audio contrast in multimedia material analysis
WCAG level AAA
The test checks whether audio materials have proper ratio of speech signal to the background sounds, especially to noises level. To high level of noises in the background or files with to high compression rate may cause difficulties in understanding for people with hearing impairment.

13. Accessibility of CAPTCHA
WCAG level A
The test finds CAPTCHA codes within the website, i.e. a popular protection tool based on retyping the code from a picture. It checks if they have an alternative authorisation method, e.g. using an audio recording.

Intentionally deformed pictures constitute a material problem for all Internet users, particularly for visually impaired or blind people, practically rendering the given website inaccessible for them.

14. Correctness of links
WCAG level A
The test checks the entire website for the presence of erroneous or outdated links leading to non-existing subpages.

The test is a perfect tool for webmasters running extensive portals. It enables the current control of updating all links within the website.

Erroneous links are troublesome for all Internet users. They are particularly confusing for mentally disabled people, senior citizens and people less experienced in using the Internet.

15. Highlighting
WCAG level A
The test controls if highlighted elements are also differentiated in web page code using proper tags, e.g. if head parameters, apart from bold type, also have an “H” tag.

Important elements of the website should be highlighted at least in two ways. Otherwise, some users may not notice the highlighting of information. This mainly concerns people with eyesight dysfunction. Blind users cannot see visually highlighted content, e.g. a different font. Colour blind people may need additional forms of highlighting the important content, e.g. using typographic procedures.

16. Blinking elements
WCAG level A and AAA
The test checks for the presence of elements blinking more often than 3 times per second.

Too frequent blinking of elements may lead to health problems. For healthy users these elements are confusing and distracting from the main, important content. For epileptics, there is a danger of epilepsy attacks. For people with eyesight dysfunction, additional blinking elements make it difficult to read the main content of a web page. Visually impaired people feel confused and they lose their orientation within the website. Blind people most often cannot read blinking content of the site.

17. Presence of a block informing on the localisation within a web page (breadcrumbs)
WCAG level AAA
The test controls if a block enabling navigation in a complicated structure of a web page  exists within the website.

Breadcrumbs facilitate navigation in complicated, multi-level websites. Thanks to them, the user may easily go, e.g. from About us / Who we are / Company data sections immediately to another subpage or directly to the main page. Breadcrumbs improve navigation within the website for all users, particularly for visually impaired people, and make it easier.

18. Contrast of text elements
WCAG level AA
The test verifies if text elements placed on a web page are in proper contrast to other neighbouring elements and to their background.

Improper contrast hampers and often makes it impossible to read the content for people with various eyesight dysfunctions. The same applies to printing the content of a given web page.

19. Topology of links
WCAG level AA
The test checks if each subpage of the analysed website is linked to other subpages using the minimum of two links. It controls if the given content can be accessed at least in two different ways. Due to its character, this test works only with the analysis of the entire website.

This functionality is important for all Internet users. It facilitates and improves navigation within the entire website.

20. Language correctness
WCAG level A and AA
The test controls if the web page has a declared language. If so, with the use of Microsoft Translator resources it analyses the web page content against match of the used language with the declared language.

The proper declaration of web page language enables all Internet users to listen to its content using speech synthesizers embedded in modern Web browsers, e.g. Safari. If the language is improperly declared, screen reading programmes automatically selecting the synthesis language used by blind people read the content placed on web pages wrongly. It also hinders search engine optimisation of websites, automated translation and content search.

21. Text intelligibility
WCAG level AAA
TThe test analyses the content of websites in the field of text intelligibility. It checks whether the text consists of complicated or jargon words, or if the sentence’s constructions aren’t too complex.

22. Presence of media descriptors
WCAG level A
The test verifies if multimedia materials placed on web pages have text descriptions.

The lack of alternative descriptions under multimedia elements makes it impossible for many disabled people to find orientation in the context of content placed on the web page. This problem particularly affects deaf people, blind people, and deaf-blind people, but also users of mobile technologies who often have the multimedia download option switched off  in their browsers.

23. Primitive formatting
WCAG level A
The test verifies if the layout of content presented on a web page was forced by primitive means, e.g. space and tabulators were used to create a table.

The proper formatting allows all users to copy the web page content preserving its original formatting (tables, columns, etc.). Primitive formatting affects all disabled people using supporting technologies of processing content placed on web pages, e.g. screen reading programmes.

24. Possibility of omitting repeating blocks
WCAG LEVEL A
The test controls a given document against the presence of so-called skip links, i.e. links transferring the user to a certain page element.

Thanks to omitting repetitive elements, e.g. a navigation menu, the user who uses a keyboard only can access a given location on a web page much faster by the direct transfer of the browser’s cursor to the target.

Skip links are used by disabled people who can control the computer using a keyboard only, e.g. manually impaired people or blind people. Also visually impaired people use skip links very eagerly as they automatically transfer them to an interesting location without the need to search through the content of the entire web page.

25. Sound
WCAG level A
The test checks for presence of sound embedded on web pages.

The sound that is played automatically after entering an Internet site deafens speech synthesizers used by people with eyesight dysfunction, effectively preventing them from familiarizing themselves with the content of the web page.