Glossary of concepts and acronyms

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(Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart)

Image codes – a kind of technique used for securing Web pages, supposed to admit only data from forms generated by humans to be sent.
CAPTCHA according to Wikipedia.


(Cascading Style Sheets)

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a list of directives (rules) for displaying the content of a selected element (or elements) by the Internet browser: (X)HTML or XML. In this way, all concepts responsible for the presentation of Web document elements, such as font family, text colour, margins, interline or even a position of a given element towards other elements or the browser window, can be described.
CSS according to Wikipedia.


(HyperText Markup Language)

Currently used widely to design websites, it allows for describing the structure of information contained in a Web page, giving meaning to individual text fragments, by forming hyperlinks, paragraphs, letters, and embedding file objects, e.g. multimedia or elements of databases (e.g. interactive data forms) in the text of the document.
HTML according to Wikipedia.


Block embedded in each sub-page, informing about the location of a user within the website.

Crude formatting

Formatting the text in a primitive, i.e. only visual, way. The use of crude formatting can hinder or in some situations even make it impossible to get acquainted with the published information. Examples of primitive formatting involve building the entire Web page on the basis of charts, using graphic headings, creating indentation with spaces or publishing one large paragraph and breaking it only with the use of a BR tag.


Validator is a programme testing the correctness of the document with a specific syntax. Validators have become so popular that some of them have evolved into multi-validators conducting several validation variants at a time.
Validator according to Wikipedia.


(World Wide Web Consortium)

Organisation involved in setting the standards of writing and sending Web pages. It was established on 1st October 1994. At present, W3C unites more than 400 organisations, companies, governmental agencies and universities from all over the world.
W3C according to Wikipedia.


(Web Accessibility Initiative)

Initiative of W3C consortium aimed at increasing the widely understood Web accessibility. Apart from accessibility to the disabled, WAI also fights for equality for all ways of using the Internet.
WAI according to Wikipedia.


(Web Content Accessibility Guidelines)

Collection of documents published by WAI group. It contains guidelines for the design of accessible websites.
WCAG according to Wikipedia.